Zakat, Fasting and Hajj

“And establish Prayer and give Zakah.”
“O you who have believed, decreed upon you is fasting as it was decreed upon those before you that you may become righteous.”
“And [due] to Allah from the people is a pilgrimage to the house – for whoever is able to find thereto a way.”

Qur’an [2:43], [2:183], [2:97]


The Prophet Muhammad (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
“There is no one who does not pay Zakat on his wealth but a bald headed snake will be made to appear to him on the Day of Resurrection, until it encircles his neck.” (Graded as Sahih by Al-Albani)

Also the Prophet (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
“Paradise has eight gates, and one of them is called Ar-Raiyan through which none will enter but those who observe fasting.” (Al-Bukhari)

And He (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said:
“From one ‘Umrah to another is an expiation for the sins that came in between them, and Hajj Mabrur (an accepted Hajj) brings no less a reward than Paradise.” (Agreed Upon)

O Allah we seek refuge with You from miserliness, O Allah please help us give thanks to You and worship You well, and make us from among those who enter the gate of Ar-Raiyan in Paradise.


1) Zakat

Zakat, the giving of alms to the poor and needy, is the third pillar of Islam, It is obligatory (not as the voluntary charity) upon every adult Muslim of sound mind and means (male & female).

Seven essential Fatwas regarding Zakat

Note: This Fatwas section is collapsible (click on -/+ to collapse/expand).

1) When and how Zakaah on Wealth should be paid?

Everything that a person owns of wealth and property, apart from gold, silver and cash, is not subject to Zakaah, unless it is for trade, such as cars, real estate and so on.

If the amount of wealth reaches the Nisaab (minimum threshold) and one full hijri year has passed, then Zakaah must be paid on it, whether it is for savings or otherwise, whether it is in the form of cash or deposited in a bank account.
And it is not permissible to delay paying the Zakaah unless that is for a valid shar’i excuse.

The Nisaab is whatever is equivalent to 85 grams of pure gold (purity of 24K) or 595 grams of pure silver (purity of 99.9%), whichever amount is less. Since the prices of Gold & Silver are varying in the market, then the Nisaab is considered according to their prices on the day when Zakah is due, by referring to the Gold and Silver market traders in the wealth owner’s local area.

The amount that must be paid of the Zakatable money is 2.5% of that money.

If the amount of mony includes any debts, then those debts should be included with the owned money in order to evaluate the amount of Zakaah if it reaches the Nisaab (according to the more correct of the scholarly opinions).

Zakaah should be given to the poor in the land where the wealth is, because of the hadeeth mentioned above. But if there is a need to transfer it elsewhere, such as the poor in the land to which it is transferred being in greater need, or because the giver has relatives who are poor, etc, then it is permissible to transfer it.

With regard to paying Zakaah in the form of goods instead of cash, the basic principle is that Zakaah must given in the form of the wealth on which Zakaah is being paid. So Zakaah on cash must be given in cash, and Zakaah on an’aam animals must be given in animals, and Zakaah on crops must be given in crops, except Zakaah on trade goods which may be given from the value of the goods or from the trade goods themselves.
If the poor person is foolish and does not handle money well, then some of the scholars have stated that it is permissible to give him Zakaah in the form of specific goods rather than cash, based on what is in the best interests of the poor person and so as to meet his needs.

The value of Zakaah on trade goods is worked out at the end of the year, based on the price for which the owner would sell them, not the price for which he would purchase them.

If the trader does not have money to pay Zakaah on his trade goods, and he thinks that paying it from his trade goods will not benifit the poor and the needy, then it is permissible for him to delay paying it until he makes money in order to pay Zakaah in the form of cash.

Undoubtedly it is difficult for a person to make a separate account for his Zakatable wealth and trade goods each month, and to pay Zakaah on every amount he owns when one year has passed since acquiring it. Hence it is easier for him to pay Zakaah on all of them or zakatable during the year when one year has passed since their amount first reached the Nisaab.

It is permissible for someone else to pay the Zakaah of a person on his behalf with his permission.

It is NOT permissible to pay the Zakaah for non-muslims and it will be considered unavailing by doing so (according to the majority of the Scholars).

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 4 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 5 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 6 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 7 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 8 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 9 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 10 – islamqa.info

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2) Zakaah on Jewelery

Zakaah on Gold and Silver must be paid by their owner if they reach the amount of Nisaab (minimum threshold) and one full hijri year has passed on them.

The Nisaab of gold is 85 grams of pure gold (purity of 24K), and the Nisaab of Silver is 595 grams of pure silver (purity of 99.9%).

The amount of Zakaah that must be paid on the Zakatable Gold or Silver is 2.5% of its price, taking into consideration the reduction factor if the owned Gold or Silver is not totally pure, and that Zakaah is based on the price for which it would be sold used at the time when Zakaah is due. This is usually less than the price for new Gold.

E.g., a person owns 200 grams of Gold with purity of 18K, and one full hijri year has passed on it. The price of the used pure Gold (24K) on the day when Zakah is due is 40$. Then the due Zakaah is:
= 200 x (18/24) x 40 x 2.5% = 150$ (noting that (18/24) is the reduction factor due to the purity of Gold).

If a person owns both Gold and Silver, and neither of them reaches the Nisaab, but when added together they do reach the Nisaab, he does not have to pay any Zakaah on them.

The Gold or Silver that has been prepared to be worn and used as an adornment for women is also obligatory to pay Zakaah on it (according to the more correct view).

No Zakaah is due on the other things that women wear for adornment, or that are kept by men and women (unless they are used for trade); such as pearls, chrysolite, sapphires, rubies, precious stones extracted from the sea, etc. Zakaah is only due on gold and silver.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 4 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 5 – islamqa.info

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3) Zakaah on Real Estate

The Real Estate is not wealth that is subject to Zakaah unless it is for trade.

With regard to Real Estate that a person acquires for the purpose of making use of it – i.e., by renting it out and benefitting from the income generated thereby – there is no Zakaah on its value; rather Zakaah is due on the rent that is collected from it, when one full year has passed.

The working out of the year for the real estate which is subject to Zakah does not begin from the time of purchasing the real estate; rather the year is one year from acquisition of the wealth with which the real estate is purchased.

If a person buys real estate but does not have any firm intention of wanting it for trade, or he has no specific intention, then it is not subject to Zakaah.

Agricultural land is not subject to Zakaah; rather Zakaah is to be paid on the crops and fruits only.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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4) Zakaah on Shares

“Share” refers to a partner’s portion of the capital of a joint-stock company.
The word is also used to refer to the document which proves that he owns this share.

If the shareowner intends to trade in shares and make a profit, then Zakaah is due on the commercial shares, both on the price of the share and on its profit.

No Zakaah is due on shares in manufacturing and service companies; such as dye companies, hotel companies and transportation companies. But Zakaah is due on profit from them if it reaches the Nisaab (minimum threshold) and one year has passed.

With regard to agricultural companies, Zakaah is due on the value of the shares in crops or produce, if they are of types on which Zakaah is due, subject to the condition that the amount of shares reaches the Nisaab, which is 300 Saa’s (approximately 720 kg). However, Zakaah is also due on the value of shares in the company’s cash reserves.

Zakaah on shares is calculated after deducting the value of the buildings, tools, and equipment owned by the company; and after deducting the amount of shares on which Zakaah is not obligatory, such as shares belonging to the public treasury, charitable waqfs, charitable organizations, and shares belonging to non-Muslims. Such data may be worked out by referring to the company’s annual budget.

The amount of Zakaah that must be paid is 2.5% (Nisaab is the current amount of 85g pure gold or 595g of pure silver, whichever is less).

Zakaah is obligatory upon every shareholder – according to scholarly correct view – because the shareholder is the true owner of the money, and the company handles his shares on his behalf according to the conditions stipulated in the company’s regulations.

The Nisaab of Zakaah on shares achieved if the amount of shares of the shareholder individually reaches it, or if the total amount of shares of the company’s shareholders reaches it.

If the shareholder’s share amount reaches the Nisaab when added to the cash money that he has, than Zakaah is due on him on the total.

If the wealth of shares is in the form of a product or other benefits, other than gold, silver or cash, then no Zakaah is due on it.

It is also permissible for the company owner to pay Zakaah on behalf of the shareholders with authorization from them.

Zakaah on shares and other kinds of trade goods is based on their market value. If it was worth one thousand at the time of purchase and is worth two thousand at the time when zakaah becomes due, then zakaah must be based on the value of two thousand, because what counts is the value of a thing at the time when Zakaah becomes due, not at the time of purchase.

It must be noted that if trade goods are bought with gold, silver or cash, a new year cannot be started for them from the time of purchase, rather the year should continue from the time when the money with which they were bought was acquired, if it reaches the Nisaab.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info

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5) Zakaah on Agricultural Produce

It is not obligatory to give Zakaah on grains and fruits unless they reach the Nisaab (minimum threshold) which is 300 Saa’s (approximately 720 kg).
When the agriculture produce reaches the Nisaab, Zakaah must be paid directly (waiting for one full hijri year is NOT a condition here).

The rate of Zakaah to be given on crops and fruit varies according to the method of irrigation. The scenarios can be summed up as follows:

1- The land is irrigated with extra costs only (not depending on rainfall at all).
The due Zakaah here is 5%.

2- The land is irrigated without any extra costs at all (completely depending on rainfall).
The due Zakaah here is 10%.

3- The land is irrigated with and without extra costs, and is evenly split between the two.
The due Zakaah here is 7.5%.

4- The land is irrigated with and without extra costs, but the ratio varies.
The due Zakaah here is 10% (in order to be in the safe side).

With regard to Zakaah on produce from the land, if it is a partnership in which one partner provides the land and the other works on the land, then the owner of the land must pay Zakaah from his share, and the one who works the land must pay Zakaah from his share, if the share of each of them reaches the minimum threshold mentioned above.
If the share of one of them does not reach the minimum threshold, then Zakaah is due on both of them (according to the majority of the Scholars).

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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6) Zakaah on Animals

Zakaah on Animals to be given if one full Hijri year has passed on them.
It is due on the An’aam animals only; i.e., Sheep, Cattle and Camels. NO Zakaah is due on any other animals unless they are for trade.
It should be also noted that the majority of Scholars stipulated that in order for Zakaah on An’aam animals to be obligatory, they must be in the pasture, i.e., they graze in the pasture for most of the year. As for those which are given feed, NO Zakaah is due on them unless they are for trade.

The Nisaab (minimum threshold) of sheep is forty, on which a sheep is to be given (as Zakaah). For more than forty, Zakah should be given as shown in the table below.


As for Cattle, their Nisaab is thirty, according to the majority of scholars, on which a bovine that is one year old and has entered its second year is to be given. For more than thirty a two years old bovine is to be given for every forty.

With regard to Camels, their Nisaab is five, on which a sheep is to be given (as Zakaah). For more than five, Zakah should be given as shown in the table below.


See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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7) Zakaat Al-Fitr

Sadaqat Al-Fitr is obligatory upon every Muslim who is self-supporting, if he has one Saa’ (About Three Kilograms) or more than he needs of food for himself and his family on the day and night of Eid Al-Fitr.
It was narrated from Ibn ‘Umar (may Allah be pleased with him) that he said: “The Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon him) enjoined Zakaat Al-Fitr, a Saa’ of dates, or a Saa’ of barley, upon all the Muslims, slave and free, male and female, young and old, and he commanded that it be paid before the people went out to pray.” [Agreed Upon]

It is acceptable to give a Saa’ of the local staple food such as rice, meat, etc.

The time of paying Zakaat Al-Fitr starts after sunset on the last day of Ramadaan, which is the first night of the month of Shawwaal, and it ends with the Eid prayer.
It is permissible to pay it one or two days before that.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info

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2) Fasting

Fasting in Islam, known as (Sawm) or (Siyam) in Arabic, it means to abstain from eating and drinking during daylight hours (from Dawn till Maghrib).
The observance of fasting during the Islamic Holy month of Ramadan is obligatory upon every adult and sane Muslim (male & female). Fasting it every year is the fourth Pillar of Islam, but fasting in Islam is not confined to that month only.

Six essential Fatwas regarding Fasting

Note: This Fatwas section is collapsible (click on -/+ to collapse/expand).

1) The intention of Fasting

Forming the intention from the night before is a condition of an obligatory/Naafil (supererogatory) fast being valid, according to which the Messenger of Allah (blessings and peace of Allah be upon him) said: “Whoever did not intend to fast before Fajr, there is no fast for him.” [Al-Albani : Sahih]

The issue of the intention is very easy; simply resolving and planning to fast after finding out that the next day is Ramadan is the intention, and it is not necessary to utter it out loud; rather that is NOT prescribed.
So if someone thinks to himself that he will be fasting tomorrow, then he has formed the intention.

If one intends to fast any days consecutively; whether in the case of making up missed obligatory fasts of Ramadan after it has passed, or in the case of Naafil fasts; It is essential to have the intention the night before each day, night by night (according to the majority of the Scholars).

With regard to the obligatory fasts of the days of Ramdan, it is sufficient to form the intention once the first time one does, unless the sequence of repetition is interrupted, in which case a new intention must be formed (according to the more correct opinion of the Scholars).
If one intends to do that on every night of the month and then fasts, this is also acceptable.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info

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2) Things that invalidate the fast

There are seven things that break the fast, as follows:

1- Intercourse.
Whoever has intercourse during the day in Ramadaan deliberately and of his or her own free will, in which the two circumcised parts meet and the tip of the penis disappears in either of the two passages, has invalidated his fast, whether he ejaculates or not. He has to repent, complete that day (i.e., not eat or drink until sunset), make up that day’s fast later on and offer a severe expiation.
The expiation is to free a slave, or if he could’nt, to fast for two consecutive months, or if he couldn’t, to feed sixty poor persons; half a Saa’ of food such as rice and the like (i.e., approximately one and a half kilograms) for each person.
If the woman was excused because she was forced to do it, or she forgot, or she was ignorant of the prohibition on having intercourse during the day in Ramadan. In that case her fast remains valid and she does not have to make it up or offer expiation.
If she was not forced, rather she went along willingly with her husband in having intercourse. Then she must make up that day and offer expiation (according to the majority of Scholars).

No expiation is required for any of the things that break the fast apart from intercourse.

2- Masturbation.
Whoever masturbates during the day in Ramadaan has to repent to Allaah and refrain from eating and drinking for the rest of the day, and he has to make up that fast later on.

3- Eating, drinking & smoking.
Refers to food or drink reaching the stomach via the mouth or the nose.
Eating out of forgetfulness does not invalidate fast. As the Messenger of Allah (peace and blessings of Allah be upon Him said: “Whoever forgets that he is fasting and eats or drinks, let him complete his fast, for the One Who fed him and gave him to drink was Allah.” [Agreed Upon]
Whoever eats thinking that Fajr (dawn) has not yet come, then finds out that it had in fact come, does not have to do anything, because he was unaware of the time, so he is excused.
If the fasting person thinks it most likely that the sun has set, and he breaks his fast, there is no sin on him. But it is not permissible for him to break his fast if he is not sure whether the sun has set.

Swallowing bits of food that are left in the mouth during the day involuntarily does not invalidate the fast. as long as the person tries to expel them.

4- Anything that is regarded as coming under the same heading as eating and drinking.
This includes Transfusion of blood to one who is fasting, Receiving via a needle (as in the case of a drip) nourishing substances which take the place of food and drink, because this is the same as food and drink.

5- Letting blood by means of cupping and the like.
The cupper and the one for whom cupping is done have both invalidated their fast.
Donating blood invalidates fast also (unless it is essential).
With regard to bleeding that results from extraction of a tooth, surgery or a blood test etc., that does not invalidate the fast.

6- Vomiting deliberately.

7- Menstruation and Nifaas.
When a woman sees the blood of her period or nifaas (post-partum bleeding), her fast becomes invalid even if that is one moment before sunset.

All of the fast invalidators – apart from menses and nifaas – only invalidate the fast if three conditions are met: that the person was aware of the ruling and not ignorant of it; that he did it knowingly and not out of forgetfulness; and that he did it by choice and was not forced to do it.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 4 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 5 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 6 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 7 – islamqa.info
See Rulings on Haydh, Istihaadah & Nifaas for women

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3) The reason why fasting is prescribed

Allaah does not prescribe any ruling but there is great wisdom behind it, which we may understand, or our minds may not be guided to understand it. We may know some of it but a great deal is hidden from us.
Among the reasons behind fasting are:

1- Fasting is a means that makes us appreciate and give thanks for pleasures.
2- Fasting is a means of giving up haraam (prohibited things), because if a person can give up halaal (permitted things) in order to please Allaah and for fear of His painful torment, then he will be more likely to refrain from haraam things.
3- Fasting will cause intense hardship, even if it does not make the sickness worse or delay recovery
4- Fasting enables us to control our desires.
5- Fasting humiliates and weakens the Shaytaan (devil).
6- The fasting person is training himself to remember that Allaah is always watching, so he gives up the things that he desires even though he is able to take them, because he knows that Allaah can see him.
7- Fasting means developing an attitude of asceticism towards this world and its desires, and seeking that which is with Allaah.
8- It makes the Muslim get used to doing a great deal of acts of worship.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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4) Fasting & Sickness

Most of the Scholars – including the four imams – are of the view that the sick person is not allowed to break his fast in Ramadan unless the sickness is severe.

What is meant by severe sickness is:

1- The sickness will be made worse by fasting.
2- Recovery will be delayed by fasting.
3- Fasting will cause intense hardship, even if it does not make the sickness worse or delay recovery.
4- The Scholars also included those who fear that they may become sick because of fasting.

With regard to making up for obligatory fasts, there are two cases:

1- Those for whom there is the hope of recovery, such as those with temporary sickness from which there is the hope of recovery. In this case the ruling is as Allaah says (interpretation of the meaning): “but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.” [2:184]
All they have to do is wait until they are better, then fast. If it so happens that the sickness continues and the person dies before recovering, then there is no sin on him.

2- Cases where sickness is ongoing, such as cancer – Allaah forbid – kidney disease, diabetes and similar chronic diseases where there is no hope of recovery. These people are allowed not to fast in Ramadaan, but they have to feed one poor person for each day.

With regard to the manner of feeding, one has the choice between giving each poor person half a saa’ of food such as rice and the like (i.e., approximately one and a half kilograms) or making food and inviting the poor to eat.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info

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5) Fasting & Travelling

The Qur’aan and Sunnah, and the consensus of the ummah, indicate that a person who is travelling during the day in Ramadaan is allowed not to fast.
Allah says (interpretation of meaning: “and whoever is ill or on a journey, the same number [of days which one did not observe Sawm (fasts) must be made up] from other days.” [2:185]

However, it is not allowed for a traveller to break his fast in several cases, including the following:

1- When he is travelling but the distance does not reach the distance at which it becomes permissible to shorten the Prayers (about 80 kilometers).
2- When his journey is not permissible according to the majority of scholars, like if he is travelling to commit a major sin.
3- When he is travelling only in order to break the fast.
4- When he is travelling and wants to break the fast before leaving the houses of his village or city.
5- When he is planning to stay in the place to which he has traveled for more than four days (according to the majority of the Scholars).

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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6) Naafil (Supererogatory) Fasts

By His Wisdom, Allaah has prescribed that His slaves should voluntarily seek to draw closer to Him, after performing the obligatory acts of worship, by doing more of the same kinds of acts of worship, and He has assigned to that great rewards.
The Prophet (peace and blessings of Allah be upon Him said: “Whoever fasts one day for the sake of Allaah, Allaah will keep his face seventy years’ distance from Hell.”
[Al-Nasaa’i]

Naafil fasts fall into two main categories:

1- General voluntary fasts (i.e., not restricted to any particular time or circumstances).

2- Specific voluntary fasts. These are superior to general voluntary fasts, and are of two types:

The first type is fasts which are specific to a type of person, such as young men who cannot get married.

The second type is fasts prescribed at specific times, which vary, with some being weekly, some monthly and some annual.
The weekly fasts are on Monday and Thursday, on which days fasting is mustahabb (desirable).
The monthly fasts are to fast on three days of each Hijri month, they are preferred to be the white days (i.e., 13th,14th & 15th).
Annual fasts are observed on specific days, or during periods when it is Sunnah to fast.
The specific days are: The day of ‘Aashoora’ which is the tenth of Muharram & The day of ‘Arafaah, which is the ninth day of Dhu’l-Hijjah.
The specific periods are: The month of Shawwaal, The month of Muharraam & The month of Sha’baan.

In the case of someone owes missed obligatory fasts and wants to fast Naafil days, Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said:
“Whoever fasts the day of ‘Arafah, or the day of ‘Ashoora’, but still owes days from Ramadaan, his fast is valid, but if he intends to fast this day to make up for a missed Ramadaan fast, he will have two rewards: the reward for the day of ‘Arafah or ‘Ashoora’ along with the reward for making up the missed fast. This has to do with voluntary fasts in general that are not connected to Ramadaan. With regard to fasting the six days of Shawwaal, they are connected to Ramadaan and can only done after making up missed Ramadaan fasts. If he fasts them before making up missed Ramadaan fasts he will not attain that reward.” [Fataawa Al-Siyaam]

The imams are agreed that whoever does not fast some days of Ramadaan has to make up those days before the next Ramadaan comes. It is not acceptable to delay them beyond the next Ramadaan without a shar’i excuse.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 3 – islamqa.info

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3) Hajj (Pilgrimage)

The word Hajj, linguistically, means heading to a place for the sake of visiting; in Islamic terminology, it implies heading to Makkah to observe the rituals of Pilgrimage.

Hajj is obligated by Allah upon every sane and adult Muslim, male and female, who is physically and financially capable. It is obligatory only once during the lifetime of a Muslim, and it is the fifth Pillar of Islam.
A child who performs Hajj may be rewarded for it, but that does not count as the “Hajj of Islam” (obligatory Hajj).
See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

The ‘Umrah is pilgrimage that can be done any time of the year or in combination with a hajj, it is a recommended and non-compulsory Pilgrimage, with less requirements and qualifications.

Ten essential Fatwas regarding Hajj/Umrah

Note: This Fatwas section is collapsible (click on -/+ to collapse/expand).

1) The intention of Hajj/Umrah

Shaykh Ibn ‘Uthaymeen (may Allah have mercy on him) said: “If a person says “Labbayka ‘umratan (Here I am for ‘Umrah)” or “Laybbayka hajjan (Here I am for Hajj)”, that does not come under the heading of forming the intention, because he formed the intention before that.
Hence it is not prescribed to say, “O Allah, I am going to do ‘Umrah” or “O Allah, I am going to do Hajj.” Rather he should form the retention in his heart and recite the Talbiyah out loud.”
[Majmoo‘ Fataawa Ibn ‘Uthaymeen]

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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2) The essential parts, obligatory actions and Sunnahs of Hajj

The difference between an essential part, an obligatory action and a Sunnah action is that Hajj is NOT valid without an essential part, whereas if an obligatory act is omitted, Hajj is still valid, but the one who omits it must offer a compensatory sacrifice (a sheep), according to the majority of scholars.
As for Sunnah actions, the one who omits them does not have to do anything.

The essential parts of Hajj are four:

1- Entering ihram, which is forming the intention to start the rituals of Hajj.
2- Standing in ‘Arafah.
3- Tawaaf Az-Ziyaarah (also called Tawaaf Al-Ifaadah), which comes after going back to Macca from Mina after slaughtering the sacrificial animal, and shaving/cutting hair.
4- Sa‘i between As-Safa and Al-Marwa.

The obligatory actions of Hajj are seven:

1- Entering ihram at the appropriate miqaat.
2- Standing in ‘Arafah until sunset, for the one who reaches there by day.
3- Staying overnight in Mina during the days of At-Tashreeq (the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhul-Hijjah), except for those whose job is to bring water and tend livestock.
4- Staying overnight in Muzdalifah until after halfway through the night, for those who reach it before that time, except for those whose job is to bring water and tend livestock. [Some scholars regard staying overnight in Mina as one of the essential parts of Hajj without which Hajj is not valid].
5- Stoning the Jamaraat in the right sequence.
6- Shaving the head or cutting the hair.
7- Tawaaf Al-Wadaa‘ (the Farewell Tawaaf).

Omiting any obligatory part of Stoning the Jamaraat or not doing them in the right sequence requires only one compensatory sacrifice, whatever the mistakes are.

If one cannot afford the compensatory sacrifice, he should observe Saum (fasts) three days during the Hajj and seven days after his return (to his home), making ten days in all.

The rest of the actions and words of Hajj are Sunnah, such as Tawaaf al-qudoom, staying overnight in Mina the night before ‘Arafah, idtibaa‘ [uncovering the right shoulder from the beginning of Tawaaf until the end, by placing the middle of the rida’ (upper garment) beneath the right armpit and the ends of the rida’ over the left shoulder], walking at a rapid pace [when doing so is recommended], kissing the Black Stone, reciting the adhkaar and du‘aa’s, climbing as-Safa and al-Marwah, and Takbeer; i.e., saying “Allaahu Akbar” (Allah is the Greatest), during Stoning the Jamaraat.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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3) Tahaarah (Purity) & Hajj/Umrah

Tahaarah (being pure, having wudoo’) is a condition of tawaaf being valid so as doing Prayers (according to the majority of the Scholars).
If a person passes wind or urine or semen, or he touches his private part, etc. during Tawaaf, then he should stop his Tawaaf, as (he is required to do if any of these things happen) in the case of Prayer. He should go and purify himself, then start Tawaaf again.

With regard to the woman who got her menses before doing Tawaf al-ifaadah, one of the two following scenarios must apply:
1. That she came from a distant land, such as Morocco, Pakistan, India and the like. In this case, according to the opinion of Shaykh al-Islam Ibn Taymiyah (may Allah have mercy on him), she should take measures [to avoid any blood contaminating the mosque, by putting on a sanitary pad] and do Tawaf, because this is a case of necessity.
2. If she came from a nearby land, such as if she resides in the Kingdom of Saudi Arabia, or she is from a Gulf country, then in this case it is not permissible for her to do Tawaf whilst menstruating; rather she should wait until she becomes pure, or she should leave then come back after that, when she has become pure. If she leaves, then she is still in a state of ihram and she has not completed the second stage of exiting ihram, so it is not permissible for her husband to be intimate with her until she has completed the second stage of exiting ihram.

Tahaarah is not a condition for all other rituals of Hajj/Umrah, so one can perform all of them even if he do not have wudoo’, or even in the case of the woman who got her menses.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info

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4) First and second stages of exiting ihraam

The actions of the Day of Sacrifice which are: stoning Jamrat al-‘Aqabah, slaughter the sacrifice, shaving the head or cutting the hair, and tawaaf al-ifaadah, plus saa’i for one perforfimg Hajj Tamattu’ (in the case of Hajj Ifraad and Qiran they don’t do saa’i if they did it it after the tawaaf of arrival).
It is preferred to do them in the mentioned order to apply the Sunnah.

Whoever does two of them apart from offering the sacrifice has thus completed the first stage of exiting ihraam, hence it becomes permissible for him to do all the things that were forbidden to him whilst in ihraam, apart from intercourse. When he has done all three, then everything that was forbidden to him become permissible, including intercourse. There are many ahaadeeth concerning this which point to this meaning.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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5) The time for stoning the jamaraat

With regard to Jamrat al-‘Aqabah, the first of the Jamaraat to be stoned is on the day of Eid after the sun has risen.
It is permissible for the weak – women, children and others – to stone it before that during the night of Eid (at the end of the night).
The time for stoning Jamrat al-‘Aqabah lasts until sunset on the day of Eid.
There is nothing wrong with delaying that until the end of the night, because of the severe crowding, or because of being too far away from the jamaraat, but it should not be delayed until dawn on the eleventh of Dhu’l-Hijjah.

As for stoning during the days of Tashreeq (the 11th, 12th and 13th of Dhu’l-Hijjah), its time starts from when the sun passes its zenith (i.e., when the time for Zuhr prayer begins).
And it ends at the end of the night. If it is difficult and too hot etc ., there is nothing wrong with stoning them at night, until dawn comes, but it is not permissible to delay it until after dawn.
It is not permissible to stone the jamaraat on the 11th, 12th or 13th before the sun has passed its zenith.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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6) Mistakes that are made when stoning the Jamaraat

There are many mistakes committed by some pilgrims when stoning the Jamaraat, following are some of them:

1- Some people think that the stoning of the Jamaraat is not valid unless it is done with pebbles from Muzdalifah. Hence you will find them going to a lot of trouble to gather the pebbles from Muzdalifah before they go to Mina. This is a mistaken idea, because the pebbles may be taken from anywhere, from Muzdalifah, from Mina, or from any place. The point is that they should be pebbles.

2- Some people, when they pick up the pebbles, wash them, either for fear that someone may have urinated on them, or to clean them, because they think that if they are clean, this is better. Whatever the case, washing the pebbles is an innovation (bid’ah).

3- Some people think that these Jamaraat are devils, and that they are actually stoning devils, so you may see them becoming very emotional and very angry, as if the Shaytaan himself is in front of him, and this is a mistaken notion.

4- Some people are careless and do not care whether the pebbles land in the pit around the Jamaraat or not. Noting that if the pebbles do not land in the pit around the Jamaraat, then the stoning is NOT valid.

5- Some people think that the pebbles must hit the pillar in the pit, and this is a mistaken notion.

6- One of the most Serious Mistakes that are made is when some people take the matter of stoning the Jamaraat lightly, and delegate someone else to do it on their behalf even though they are able to do it.
This is a serious mistake, because stoning the Jamaraat is one of the rituals of Hajj.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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7) Mistakes made on the way to Muzdalifah and in Muzdalifah

mistakes that are made by some pilgrim on the way from ‘Arafah to Muzdalifah include the following:

1- Some people stop before they reach Muzdalifah, especially those who are walking, because they get tired, and they stay there until they pray Fajr, then they go to Mina. Whoever does that has failed to stay overnight in Muzdalifah, and this is a very serious matter.

2- Some people pray Maghrib and ‘Isha’ on the way in the usual manner, before they reach Muzdalifah. This is contrary to the Sunnah.

3- Some people do not pray Maghrib and ‘Isha’ until they reach Muzdalifah, even if the time for ‘Isha’ has ended. And this is NOT permissible.

4- Some pilgrims pray Fajr before its time, praying and leaving. And this is a serious mistake.

5- Some pilgrims leave Muzdalifah before they have spent the minimum period of time there, so you see them passing through and not stopping, and saying that just passing through is sufficient. This is a serious mistake, because passing through is not sufficient, rather the Sunnah indicates that the pilgrim should stay in Muzdalifah until he prays Fajr, then he should stop at al-Mash’ar al-Haraam, making du’aa’ to Allaah until it has become very light, then he should set out for Mina. (What is meant by it becoming very light is when the daylight has spread before the sun actually rises).
With regard to staying in Muzdalifah until the sun has risen, and they pray Salaat al-Shurooq or al-Ishraaq, then they leave after that. This also contrary to the Sunnah.

Some people stay up on the night of Muzdalifah praying qiyaam, reading Qur’aan and reciting dhikr. And this is contrary to the Sunnah.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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8) The hadiy (sacrifice) that is obligatory for the pilgrim, and where it is to be slaughtered?

The sacrifices that must be offered by the pilgrim during his Hajj are of different types:

1. The hadiy of Hajj Tamattu‘ and Hajj Qiraan.
There is no difference of scholarly opinion concerning the fact that the hadiy must be slaughtered in the Haram of Makkah.
What must be done with the meat of the sacrifice is to distribute it to the poor and needy of the sanctuary; it is permissible to take a little of it outside of the Haram zone to eat or give as a gift.

2. Sacrifices offered (as a penalty) for omitting an obligatory part of Hajj.
This sacrifice must be offered in the Haram and its meat must also be distributed in the Haram.

3. Sacrifice offered because of the pilgrim doing one of the things that are prohibited whilst in ihram.
With regard to this sacrifice, the pilgrim has the choice between slaughtering it and distributing its meat in the place where he did the prohibited action – whether that place was within the Haram boundary or not – or slaughtering it and distributing its meat in the Haram.

4. Sacrifice offered because of being prevented from completing one’s Hajj.
The ruling of this sacrifice is similar to the ruling on the type mentioned above.

5. Sacrifices offered as compensation for hunting game.
This must be slaughtered and the meat distributed within the Haram zone, and it is not valid if done outside the Haram zone.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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9) The ability to perform Hajj; Guidelines and rulings on Hajj al-badal (proxy Hajj)

The scholars’ discussion of the ability to perform Hajj revolves around the availability of a means of transport and sufficient money for the journey there and back, as well as sufficient funds to cover one’s family’s needs during one’s absence, freedom from debt, good health, security on the way, and – for women – a Mahram (blood relative within the prohibited degrees of marriage, or a husband).

One of the conditions of Hajj being obligatory is that a person should be free of physical illness and disability that would prevent him from performing Hajj. If a person is suffering from a chronic illness, permanent disability, paralysis (that makes him unable to walk) or is very old and unable to move about, then there is no obligation to perform Hajj. But rather he must appoint someone to perform Hajj on his behalf.

If a person is able to perform Hajj with the help of another, then it becomes a duty to perform Hajj when such help is available.

If his disability is not permanent, then he should wait until he has recovered, then perform Hajj for himself; he is not permitted to appoint someone to perform Hajj on his behalf.

Following are among the Rulings on Proxy Hajj:

1- Proxy Hajj cannot be done on behalf of one who is financially incapable (and cannot afford to go for Hajj), because the obligation of Hajj is waived for the one who is poor. Rather proxy Hajj is done for the one who is physically incapable.

2- It is not permissible for anyone to perform Hajj on behalf of another unless he has already performed Hajj for himself. If he does do that, then his Hajj counts for him and not for the other person.

3- It is permissible for a woman to perform Hajj on behalf of a man, and for a man to perform Hajj on behalf of a woman.

4- It is not permissible for anyone to perform Hajj on behalf of two or more people in one Hajj. But if someone does Hajj on behalf of one person and he does ‘Umrah on behalf of another person in the same year, that is acceptable so long as the pilgrim has already performed Hajj and ‘Umrah on his own behalf.

5- It is not permissible for anyone to have the aim of earning money by performing Hajj on behalf of another; rather his aim should be Hajj and reaching those holy places, and doing an act of kindness towards his brother by performing Hajj on his behalf.

6- If a Muslim dies without having performed the obligatory Hajj, and he met all the conditions of it being obligatory, then it is obligatory to perform Hajj on his behalf from the wealth that he left behind, whether he left instructions to that effect or not.

7- The best is for a son to perform Hajj on behalf of his father, and for a relative to perform Hajj on behalf of his relative, but if he hires a stranger to do it, that is permissible.

8- It is not stipulated that the one who performs Hajj on a person’s behalf should know his name; rather it is sufficient for him to have the intention to perform Hajj on his behalf.

9- It is not permissible for the one who has been appointed to perform Hajj on behalf of someone else to appoint someone else to do it except with the consent of the one who originally appointed him.

10- One should seek out good, sincere and trustworthy people who have knowledge of the rituals of Hajj to perform proxy Hajj.

See Fatwa 1 – islamqa.info
See Fatwa 2 – islamqa.info

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10) Hajj does not waive obligatory duties such as expiations and debts

There are many hadeeths about the virtues of Hajj which indicate that it erases sins and expiates for bad deeds, and the individual returns from it (free of sin) as on the day his mother bore him.

But this virtue and reward does not mean that obligatory duties are waived, whether they are duties owed to Allah, may He be exalted, such as expiations and fulfilment of vows, or duties that he has not yet fulfilled, such as zakaah that he has not paid or fasts that he has to make up, or duties owed to other people, such as debts and the like. Hajj brings forgiveness of sins, but it does not mean that these duties are waived, according to scholarly consensus.

If a person delays making up Ramadan fasts, for example, and that is without an excuse, then he does Hajj and it is accepted, his Hajj brings forgiveness for the sin of delaying, but the obligation to make up those days is not waived.

See Full Fatwa – islamqa.info

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